Listed below are the focus skills of the prekindergarten four-year-old (PK4) program, organized by developmental domains, which support the learning and growth of the whole child. The New York State Prekindergarten learning standards outline the developmental and learning outcomes children achieve during the prekindergarten years. Teachers facilitate and support skill development through purposeful play-based learning experiences.



    Character Education Development

    • Is able to transition into unfamiliar and familiar settings with adult assistance (e.g. separate from parents at arrival, move from the classroom to the school library.)
    • Regulates his/her feelings
    • Is able to name and express emotions in an appropriate manner
    • Communicates appropriately with adults and peers.
    • Follows the rules and routines of the classroom 
    • Shares materials/takes turns
    • Understands the concept of ‘personal space’
    • Seeks out help from familiar adults when needed
    • Is able to focus attention during classroom activities (e.g. listens to a story being read)
    • Is able to participate in small and /or large group settings


    Communication, Language and Literacy
    Reading/Reading Foundations

    • Recognizes the difference between numbers and letters
    • Recognizes and names some upper- and lower-case letters, especially those in their own name
    • Demonstrates an awareness that some words begin with the same sound
    • Begins to hear and identify the initial sound in a word
    • Begins to Identify and/or produces rhyming words (e.g. participation in songs and fingerplays)
    • Recognizes first and last name in print
    • Knows that print conveys meaning
    • ‘Reads’ some environmental print (e.g. knows that the Exit sign says ‘exit’)
    • While looking at a book, holds the book correctly (right side up, front to back) and turns the pages individually.
    • Recognizes that words are read top to bottom, left to right, page to page.
    • Identifies what an author and illustrator does.
    • Can retell a story in the correct sequence

    Speaking and Listening

    • Is able to speak in a complete sentence
    • Asks and answers questions to further understanding or acquire new information
    • Dictates an idea that can be written down by an adult
    • Identifies and begins to use new words acquired through read-aloud, conversations, descriptions of everyday items, and play based experiences. 
    • Uses more descriptive language in conversation or to tell a story
    • Understands and follows 3 step directions


    • Independently writes some upper- and lower-case letters, especially those in their own name
    • Creates drawings, clusters letters, or letter like forms to represent an idea or concept


    Cognition and Knowledge of the World

    • Is able to rote count to 20
    • Uses 1:1 correspondence to count 10 objects
    • Identifies numerals 1-10 in random order
    • Is able to match numbers and their quantities up to 10 and tell how many objects are in the set. (e.g. looks at 6 cookies on a plate and states there are 6 cookies)
    • Identifies, sorts, matches and describes basic shapes (e.g. circle, square, rectangle, triangle)
    • Sorts objects by different attributes (e.g. color, shape, size)
    • Begins to understand attributes of objects (e.g. length and weight)
    • Identifies mathematical positional vocabulary (e.g. top, middle, bottom, first, last)
    • Begins to understand and use mathematical measurement vocabulary (e.g. big, small, heavy, light, empty, full)
    • Begins to understand and use mathematical measurement vocabulary that refers to quantity (e.g. more, less, equal, total)
    • Begins to understand that addition is adding to, and subtraction is taking from
    • Makes a simple AB pattern


    • Names and explains the use of senses; uses sense to explore the world around them
    • Asks why, how, and what if questions (inquiry)
    • Makes predictions
    • Identifies types of weather and seasons
    • Identifies and classifies animals and plants
    • Identifies properties of materials in nature (rocks, seeds, etc.)
    • Compare and categorize objects based on their properties.

    Social Studies

    • Identifies himself/herself by characteristics (e.g. gender, ethnicity, race, language, culture)
    • Identifies characteristics of family, family members and describes their roles (those living in the household)
    • Describes some of the holidays, food, customs and events related to their own and others’ cultures
    • Identifies/describes features of their own home, familiar places, and community
    • Understands roles of community helpers
    • Knows what a map or globe is and some common features of them
    • Understands that money is needed for exchange for some goods and services

    The Arts

    • Uses a variety of mediums and methods
    • Expresses interest in drawings, sculptures, models, and paintings
    • Participates in music (listening, singing, performing, instruments)
    • Engages in making different rhythm patterns
    • Imitates parts of dance or movement activity


     Physical Development
    Gross Motor

    • Able to kick and catch a large ball
    • Balances on one foot, hops on one foot
    • Climbs stairs using alternate feet
    • Standing jump
    • Runs and walks in a straight line
    • Maintains balance during sitting, standing and movement activities

    Fine Motor

    • Uses crayons, pencils, paint brushes, eating utensils, and scissors effectively
    • Strings small beads; places small objects in a container
    • Buttons, zippers and/or snaps independently
    • Traces vertical and horizontal line


    • Washes hands independently
    • Covers mouth when coughing or sneezing (elbow)